Cultures, and the practices, beliefs and systems of knowledge that they consist of are constructed through the confluence of multiple forces. Cultures are constantly evolving across time and space and are inherently hybrid, subject to continuous waves of change and flux. In the social sciences, the cultural turn showed us that no culture is concrete, continuous or even homogenous and notions of tradition that emphasise continuity across time and space are often misleading. Meanwhile, theorists such as Foucault have demonstrated that even our most elemental beliefs on health, family, law and order, right and wrong are not necessarily ‘natural’ but nurtured over time through the institutions that we establish and the discourses that we generate. So, what does this interpretation of culture mean for brands operating in the commercial world? Well, recognising the fluidity of culture poses both a challenge and a blessing. If cultures are heterogeneous and continuously re-inventing themselves then clearly, it can be difficult for brands to keep up, stay relevant and achieve growth based on a sound understanding on what consumers need. On the other hand, the blessing is that brands do not stand apart from culture but are within it, actively shaping it and being shaped by it on a daily basis.